Material studied: Proteins
Methods used: Mass spectrometry, differential in-gel electrophoresis
Ribosomes, the protein-making machinery of our cells, convert genetic information encoded by messenger RNA into proteins. Enzymes in the cell can further modify proteins, tacking on chemical groups that fine-tune their function. Proteomics examines not only identify proteins in the system, but also their abundance, modifications and interactions with other proteins.
High-throughput approaches such as mass spectrometry and protein microarrays allow the proteome to be studied on a large scale, and have been used to identify protein biomarkers for the diagnosis of disease.