AsianScientist (Sep. 10, 2012) – New research led by researchers at North Carolina State University shows that a soy-rich diet may help reduce anxiety after exposure to the chemical bisphenol A (BPA) early in life.
“We knew that BPA could cause anxiety in a variety of species, and wanted to begin to understand why and how that happens,” said lead author Dr. Heather Patisaul, an associate professor of biology at NC State.
BPA is a chemical used in a wide variety of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, and is used in consumer products such as some food containers.
In the study, rats were exposed to low doses of BPA during gestation, lactation (nursing), and through puberty. One group of animals was fed only soy; one group was fed a soy-free diet; one group was fed only soy and exposed to BPA; and one group was fed no soy and exposed to BPA.
Blood tests showed that the animals exposed to BPA had BPA levels well within the range found in humans. Similarly, blood tests of animals fed soy showed levels of genistein, an estrogen-like chemical found in soy, were at levels within the human range for vegetarians and others who regularly consume soy foods.
Among adolescent rats on the soy-free diet, both males and females that had been exposed to BPA exhibited significantly higher levels of anxiety. The researchers also found, for the first time, associated gene changes in the amygdala, a brain region known to play a role in mediating responses to fear and stress.
Two of the affected genes were estrogen receptor beta and the melanocortin receptor 4. Both are required for oxytocin release, thus changes in oxytocin/vasopressin signaling pathways may underpin the behavioral changes. Oxytocin is a hormone and neurotransmitter that has been linked to social behavior.
The researchers found that adolescent rats on the soy-rich diet did not exhibit anxiety – suggesting that the soy-rich diet may mitigate the effects of BPA.
“Soy contains phytoestrogens that can also affect the endocrine system, which regulates hormones,” Patisaul said, expressing caution on the adoption of a soy-rich diet.
“It is not clear whether these phytoestrogens are what mitigate the effect of BPA, or if it is something else entirely. That’s a question we’re hoping to address in future research.”
The article can be found at: Patisaul HB et al. (2012) Anxiogenic effects of developmental Bisphenol A exposure 1 are associated with gene expression changes in the juvenile rat amygdala and mitigated by soy.
Source: NCSU; Photo: Smaku/Flickr/CC.
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