Thinking Along Racial Lines Makes One Less Creative, Study
New research suggests that racial stereotyping reduces creative thinking by making people more close-minded.
AsianScientist (Jan. 10, 2013) - In an article published in Psychological Science, researchers from Israel, China, and Singapore find that racial stereotyping and creative stagnation share a common mechanism: categorical thinking.
"Although these two concepts concern very different outcomes, they both occur when people fixate on existing category information and conventional mindsets," the authors write.
The researchers examined whether there might be a causal relationship between racial essentialism — the view that racial groups possess underlying essences that represent deep-rooted, unalterable traits and abilities — and creativity.
They hypothesized that, once activated, an essentialist mindset would lead to a reluctance to consider alternative perspectives, resulting in a generalized closed-mindedness.
The researchers manipulated participants' beliefs about racial essentialism by having them read one of three articles: one that described fictitious scientific research supporting racial essentialist beliefs, one that described fictitious research supporting racial nonessentialist beliefs, or one about the scientific properties of water.
The participants then took a commonly used test of creativity called the Remote Associates Test. The participants were given three distinct words and they had to identify a single target word that linked the three words together. So, for example, given the words "manners," "round," and "tennis," the correct answer would be vtable."
The researchers found that participants primed with an essentialist viewpoint were less creative, solving significantly fewer of the word problems correctly than participants in the other two groups.
Results from a follow-up study showed that the link between racial essentialism and decreased creativity could be explained, at least in part, by an increase in closed-mindedness.
Together, these studies suggest that essentialism exerts its negative effects on creativity by changing how people think, as opposed to changing what they think. This finding fits with previous research on information processing and creativity.
The research also suggests that essentialist beliefs are fairly malleable. While there are many different aspects that still need to be explored, the researchers speculate that it might be possible to use these findings to devise an intervention program that reduces racial essentialist beliefs, thereby leading participants not only to become more socially tolerant but also to unleash their creative potential in the process.
The article can be found at: Tadmor CT et al. (2012) Racial Essentialism Reduces Domain-General Creativity.
Source: Psychological Science; Photo: Ars Electronica/Flickr/CC.
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